Applying Jungian Psychology to Fiction and Screenwriting: Part 3 Personality Theories

by | Apr 10, 2024 | 0 comments

Read Part 1 and 2 First!

part 1: https://gettherapybirmingham.com/the-villain-with…nd-screenwriting/

part 2: https://gettherapybirmingham.com/using-jungian-ps…d-fiction-part-2/

part 3: https://gettherapybirmingham.com/applying-jungian…onality-theories/

How can Depth Psychology Personality Theory Help You Write Better Characters?

What is the difference between good character writing and bad character writing in fiction? There are many ways a character can be written poorly. Does the character have only one motivation? Does the character feel like a blend of other writing tropes with few original components? Do the characters’ decisions serve to heighten the drama but feel separate from any unifying thought process or personality?

Writing characters is a different sort of skill than world-building, plotting, or structuring in fiction. Character writing often requires that you allow the audience to understand things that you can’t tell them or feel things that you can’t force them to. When a writer writes about the law as it applies to a murder trial or the fantasy creatures that inhabit a part of the map, they are able to inject that expository knowledge directly into the head of the audience.

This kind of exposition is often doled out slowly in dramatic revelations to build tension over the course of the narrative or give the audience information needed to understand the mechanics of the plot. Exposition is usually hidden in another character’s dialogue or a narrator’s thoughts. Lots of thought goes into the way that this information will be revealed and by what character. In doing so, audiences usually spend a lot of time in a character’s head or in conversations between characters.

Pieces of Pieces: Parts of Parts:

The difference between a good piece of fiction and a great piece of fiction is very rarely in these details, but often in the characters through which these details are communicated. Bad character writing gives an audience information about a character without giving them an understanding of who that character is. As an audience for fiction, we often know “what” a character is, but we don’t feel “who” they are as a functioning person.

Most of us live our lives interacting with hundreds of people each week in some way. Regardless of how aware we are of psychological theories, we are continually comparing the characters that we consume through fiction to those that we know from our lives involuntarily. This is the reason that our brain cannot accept a badly written character as a real person when we are told their story. We inherently understand the way that other people think as a process of having navigated the social world around us since we were young. When a character doesn’t feel like something we can understand based on our experiences with other people, we lose interest or turn off the urge to understand.

The 1970s and mid-1980s had a period where mainstream fantasy became extremely influenced by the latest psychological and social anthropological scholarship. The Jungian idea of the shadow self and Joseph Campbell’s idea of the monomyth are familiar staples in pop media during this period. Currently, the popularity of the Game of Thrones franchise has mainstreamed many high fantasy tropes that are now able to be used in more popular media like television comedy and advertising. The popularity of the Mad Men TV show launched a renewed interest in the time period in which it was set, as did the movie Titanic.

More critically acclaimed and “artistic” media is usually characterized by characters that fall outside of what the general public can understand and accept. Look at a list of classic novels or Oscar-winning films, and you will realize that many times award-winning fiction takes characters and settings that are unknown, unpopular, or invisible in our culture and then forces mainstream audiences to connect with them anyway.

Every character, just like every person, has things that are specific to their own psychology and attributes that are universal across humanity. Finding the appropriate blend of these two elements is the fastest way to get an audience connected and interested in what happens to your character’s story. People really want to understand others and to be understood. This motive is one of the primary drivers of human life and culture.

The desire to understand and to be understood runs deep into the early roots of our species. The first cities that humans built began around 7500 BCE. Originally, scholars assumed that cities developed to increase agricultural yields and consolidate artisanal expertise and producers. The belief was that civilization began because concentrating human labor produces surpluses of the food and necessities that humans need. This is the way that our current industrialized society works, after all. More recent scholarship has disproved this theory, showing that humans moved to the first cities despite less access to food and decreased quality of life. I have always seen this as a powerful testament to our species’ drive to form connections and social relationships with others, even at the expense of our own health.

One of the largest causes of anxiety underlying the various symptoms that I see patients bring into therapy is that we are connection-making creatures that need connections with others to make meaning out of life. However, these relationships are imperfect, in that no one can ever understand us perfectly. They are also impermanent, in that they end, and we are not always in control of when they end.

This reality is responsible for much of the anxiety that the characters in fiction and in the world process every day. Much of the work of psychotherapy and much of the work of the writer is coming to terms with both of these realities and using them to a greater end or effect. We are always scanning the world to see who we can connect with, and in the same way, your audience is scanning your book to see if they connect to your characters.

One of the primary functions of psychotherapy is repairing clients’ ability to have safe connections with others. Often this requires me to teach traumatized individuals that it is okay to want connections again and that relationships can be safe and empowering. Other times, this requires me to teach patients the rules of how, when, and where it is healthy to attempt a connection. Almost always, it requires me to reconnect patients to the heart of their unique character and make them conscious of all of the parts of the psyche mentioned in this book that make up that unique character.

Your audience wants to connect to your characters. The writer just has to find a way to allow them to do it. We are designed to look for parts of ourselves and our past in other people so that we can know if it is safe to make a connection or not. People want to find a connection with other people. We want to find a part of ourselves reflected back at us from another person so that we can feel less alone.

When you have the advantage of letting the audience peek into a character’s head, it is important to get the nuts and bolts of that head right so the audience finds parts of it familiar. If you can show your audience things about this character that are similar to the way they think, you will shock them with how at home they feel within your character. Great characters allow the audience to become them, while good characters are merely interesting or provoke an emotional reaction. When you capture something human and alive as a writer, it will resonate with your audience as real because it will remind them of their own story and the thousands of stories of the others we interact with in our lives.

One of my favorite things about psychotherapy is that it requires me to understand another person very quickly. The people who come in to therapy are all very different from me and from each other. Psychotherapy requires me to make a connection with someone who is hurting and often in crisis. Patients often assume that they will be misunderstood because for most of their lives they have been. I have to quickly be able to figure out all of the parts moving in that person’s head before I can help teach them how to understand those parts. Patients are experiencing changes in their thinking and personality that they don’t know that I will be able to treat or that anyone else has ever experienced. Patients new to therapy often feel more alone and disconnected than at any other time in their lives. My patients as a psychotherapist, like your audience as writers, are often looking for a reason to leave.

Psychotherapy requires me to figure out the unique way that a person is thinking so that I can figure out the thought processes that they are not telling me. I have to be able to look into a patient’s past and make certain assumptions about what they value and what brought them to this point. I have to do this to establish a connection that makes them feel safe, understood, and hopeful about the future. As a Jungian leaning psychotherapist, I have to be able to help the client find a sense of purpose that is unique to their story. Well-written characters will always be looking for a sense of purpose because all humans never cease doing this.

The History and Evolution of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in Psychotherapy

As writers, we often find ourselves grappling with the complexities of character development, striving to create authentic, multi-dimensional characters that resonate with readers. One powerful tool for achieving this depth is the Internal Family Systems (IFS) model, developed by psychotherapist Richard Schwartz. Despite its potentially confusing name, IFS is not limited to family therapy; instead, it provides a framework for understanding the various parts of the self that exist within each individual.

Schwartz, a family therapist by training, recognized that the Jungian parts of the self within a person’s psyche behave in ways remarkably similar to the dynamics of a family. Each of us contains internalized aspects of our environment, including characters, lessons from our family, our authentic self, and cultural and inherited archetypes. By understanding and embracing these parts, writers can unlock a wealth of creative potential and overcome the stagnation and frustration of writer’s block.

In this article, we will explore how the IFS model and Jungian archetypes can be used to create internal “engines” that unconsciously drive characters in realistic and compelling ways. By allowing our own unconscious to emerge on the page, we can tap into a rich source of inspiration and craft characters that feel truly alive. So, let’s dive in and discover how these powerful psychological tools can revolutionize your writing process and help you create stories that captivate and inspire your readers.

When creating characters, it can be very useful to think of them as a system of interconnected parts – their personality traits, beliefs, quirks, flaws, desires, fears, backstories, relationships and so on. By building characters in this modular way, you develop a deep understanding of what makes them tick and how they are likely to think, feel and behave in any given situation. This allows you to write characters that feel authentic, three-dimensional and consistent. Conceptualizing characters as a system of parts provides benefits for both plotters and pantsers. Plotters, who like to outline and plan their stories in advance, can use their understanding of the character parts to map out realistic arcs and plot points. The modular view of character helps plotters determine how events will impact the characters and what actions the characters will take, making it easier to construct a solid plot. Pantsers, on the other hand, who prefer to discover the story as they write without heavy outlining, can tap into their intuitive understanding of the character parts to improvise how the characters will respond to each new situation that unfolds. The parts of the characters serve as a guide for pantsers, helping them write scenes that feel natural and unforced even without extensive planning. So whether you’re a plotter or a pantser, investing time in building modular characters with well-developed parts pays off in creating believable characters who drive engaging stories.

The MBTI

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a widely used personality assessment tool that has its roots in the work of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. This article explores the history of the MBTI, its development by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs, and its application in psychotherapy. We will also discuss how therapy can help individuals become more comfortable with their inferior functions and achieve a more balanced personality.

Carl Jung’s Theory of Psychological Types:

In the early 20th century, Carl Jung began to notice that his patients exhibited different preferences in their problem-solving approaches. He observed that some people preferred to focus on the external world (extraversion), while others were more drawn to their inner thoughts and feelings (introversion). Jung also identified two distinct ways of perceiving information: through the senses (sensing) or through intuition (intuition). Additionally, he recognized two ways of making decisions: based on logic and objective analysis (thinking) or based on personal values and feelings (feeling).

Jung postulated that these preferences were mutually exclusive – an individual could not be both extraverted and introverted at the same time. He believed that people had a natural inclination towards one preference in each pair, which shaped their personality and behavior.

The Development of the MBTI:

In the 1940s, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs, expanded upon Jung’s theory. They added a fourth dimension to the existing three pairs: judging (J) and perceiving (P). This dimension described how individuals preferred to interact with the external world, either through a structured, decisive approach (judging) or a flexible, adaptable approach (perceiving).

Myers and Briggs developed the MBTI as a questionnaire to help people determine their personality type based on these four dimensions. The assessment categorizes individuals into one of 16 distinct personality types, each represented by a four-letter code (e.g., INTJ, ESFP).

The MBTI in Psychotherapy:

In psychotherapy, the MBTI is often used as a tool to help clients gain self-awareness and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Therapists can use the MBTI to help clients recognize their preferred problem-solving styles and how these preferences may be influencing their behavior and relationships.

Patients in therapy often cling to their preferred style, even when it is not effectively solving their problems. This can lead to the neglect of their less developed functions, which may become part of their “shadow” – the unconscious aspects of their personality.

Through therapy, individuals can learn to embrace their inferior functions and develop a more balanced approach to life. As patients become more comfortable with their less preferred functions, their MBTI scores may begin to converge, reflecting a more integrated personality.

The MBTI Types:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a popular personality assessment tool that categorizes individuals into 16 distinct personality types based on their preferences in four key areas. Each of these areas is represented by a letter, and understanding what these letters mean is essential to grasping the core concepts of the MBTI.

Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I)

The first letter in an MBTI type indicates whether a person is an extravert or an introvert. Extraverts are energized by social interaction and tend to focus on the outer world of people and things. They often think out loud, enjoy being the center of attention, and are action-oriented. On the other hand, introverts are energized by solitude and tend to focus on their inner world of thoughts and feelings. They often think before speaking, prefer one-on-one interactions, and are more reflective.

Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N)

The second letter represents how a person gathers information. Sensing individuals focus on concrete, tangible facts and details. They trust what can be experienced through the five senses and tend to be practical, present-oriented, and observant. In contrast, intuitive individuals focus on patterns, possibilities, and meanings. They trust their instincts, enjoy abstract concepts, and tend to be imaginative, future-oriented, and innovative.

Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)

The third letter indicates how a person makes decisions. Thinking individuals prioritize logic, objectivity, and impartiality. They analyze pros and cons, strive for consistency, and are guided by principles and rules. Conversely, feeling individuals prioritize values, empathy, and harmony. They consider the impact of decisions on people, are attuned to emotions, and are guided by their heart.

Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

Style preferences. Judging individuals prefer structure, organization, and closure. They like to plan, make decisions quickly, and have things settled. They often have a strong work ethic and value punctuality. Perceiving individuals, on the other hand, prefer flexibility, spontaneity, and openness. They like to keep their options open, adapt to changing circumstances, and gather more information before deciding. They often have a more relaxed approach to life and value adaptability.

By combining these four preferences, the MBTI identifies 16 unique personality types, each with its own set of characteristics, strengths, and potential challenges. For example, an ESTJ (Extravert, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) is described as a logical, decisive, and efficient organizer, while an INFP (Introvert, Intuitive, Feeling, Perceiving) is portrayed as an idealistic, empathetic, and creative individual.

Function Stacks on the MBTI

In the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) theory, the four letters (E/I, S/N, T/F, and J/P) combine to form cognitive functions, which are the building blocks of each personality type. These functions represent different ways of perceiving and processing information, as well as making decisions. Each personality type has a unique hierarchy of these functions, known as a function stack.

The four cognitive functions are:

Sensing (S) – Gathering concrete, tangible information through the five senses.
Intuition (N) – Perceiving patterns, possibilities, and meanings beyond the concrete information.
Thinking (T) – Making decisions based on logic, objectivity, and impartiality.
Feeling (F) – Making decisions based on values, empathy, and harmony.
Each of these functions can be either extraverted (e) or introverted (i), depending on whether the individual directs the function towards the outer world or their inner world. This results in eight possible combinations:

Extraverted Sensing (Se)
Introverted Sensing (Si)
Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
Introverted Intuition (Ni)
Extraverted Thinking (Te)
Introverted Thinking (Ti)
Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
Introverted Feeling (Fi)

The J/P preference in the MBTI determines the order of the functions in the stack. For types ending with a J (judging), the dominant function is a judging function (T or F), while for types ending with a P (perceiving), the dominant function is a perceiving function (S or N).

Each personality type has a unique function stack consisting of four functions:

Dominant Function – The most developed and preferred function, used most frequently and confidently.
Auxiliary Function – The second most developed function, supporting the dominant function and providing balance.
Tertiary Function – The third most developed function, less conscious and often develops later in life.
Inferior Function – The least developed function, often suppressed or used ineffectively, but can develop with personal growth.
For example, an INTJ (Introverted, Intuitive, Thinking, Judging) has the following function stack:

Dominant: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
Auxiliary: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
Tertiary: Introverted Feeling (Fi)
Inferior: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
This means that an INTJ primarily relies on their introverted intuition to gather information and generate ideas, while using extraverted thinking to make decisions and organize their external world. Their introverted feeling helps them understand their own values and emotions, while their extraverted sensing is the least developed and may be a source of stress or challenge.

Effects of Extraversion and Introversion on MBTI Functions

Extraverted Intuition (Ne):

– Dominant (ENFP, ENTP): Constantly generates new ideas, sees possibilities everywhere, and enjoys exploring abstract concepts. May struggle with focus and follow-through.
– Auxiliary (INTP, INFP): Supports dominant Ti or Fi by providing new perspectives and insights.
– Inferior (ISTJ, ISFJ): May feel overwhelmed by too many possibilities, preferring tried-and-true methods. Can experience “aha!” moments when inferior Ne is triggered.
– Example: As a dominant function, Ne might drive someone to constantly start new projects or hobbies without finishing them.

Introverted Intuition (Ni):

– Dominant (INTJ, INFJ): Has a strong sense of “knowing” and trusts their insights, often seeing the big picture and underlying patterns. May struggle to articulate their vision to others. Seeks deep understanding, sees underlying meanings and patterns, and trusts inner vision.
– Auxiliary (ENTJ, ENFJ): Supports dominant Te or Fe by providing insights and long-term planning.
– Inferior (ESTP, ESFP): May discount their insights in favor of tangible experiences, but can have moments of profound realization when inferior Ni is triggered. May have strong hunches but struggles to trust them over immediate experiences.
– Example: As an inferior function, Ni might cause someone to suddenly question their entire life path during a moment of stress.

Extraverted Sensing (Se):

– Dominant (ESTP, ESFP): Fully engages with the present moment, enjoying new experiences and taking action. May struggle with long-term planning and commitment. Focuses on immediate experiences, takes action, and adapts to the present moment.
– Auxiliary (ISTP, ISFP): Supports dominant Ti or Fi by gathering sensory information and taking action.
– Inferior (INTJ, INFJ): May feel uncomfortable with too much sensory stimulation, preferring quiet and solitude. Can experience moments of indulgence when inferior Se is triggered. May struggle with details and living in the moment, preferring abstract concepts.
– Example: As a dominant function, Se might lead someone to make impulsive decisions based on immediate desires.

Introverted Sensing (Si):

– Dominant (ISTJ, ISFJ): Compares present experiences to past memories, seeking stability and consistency. May struggle with change and new experiences.
– Auxiliary (ESTJ, ESFJ): Supports dominant Te or Fe by providing practical, detail-oriented input.
– Inferior (ENTP, ENFP): May feel bored with routine and details, craving novelty and excitement. Can experience nostalgia or sentimentality when inferior Si is triggered. May struggle with routine and details, preferring novelty and possibilities.
– Example: As an inferior function, Si might cause someone to suddenly feel sentimental about a childhood toy or memory.

Extraverted Thinking (Te):

– Dominant (ENTJ, ESTJ): Organizes, plans, and makes decisions based on objective logic and efficiency. May struggle with considering others’ feelings and perspectives.
– Auxiliary (INTJ, ISTJ): Supports dominant Ni or Si by providing structure and logical analysis.
– Inferior (INFP, ISFP): May have difficulty expressing logical arguments or making tough decisions. Can experience moments of bluntness or criticism when inferior Te is triggered. May struggle with making tough decisions and confronting others directly.
– Example: As a dominant function, Te might drive someone to create detailed schedules and plans for every aspect of their life.

Introverted Thinking (Ti):

– Dominant (INTP, ISTP): Analyzes, categorizes, and seeks precise understanding based on subjective logic. May struggle with expressing emotions and considering others’ perspectives.
– Auxiliary (ENTP, ESTP): Supports dominant Ne or Se by providing logical analysis and problem-solving.
– Inferior (ENFJ, ESFJ): May have difficulty making decisions based on subjective logic, preferring to consider others’ needs. Can experience moments of intense analysis when inferior Ti is triggered. May struggle with making decisions based on subjective logic over group harmony.
– Example: As an inferior function, Ti might cause someone to suddenly question and analyze their relationships during a moment of stress.

Extraverted Feeling (Fe):

– Dominant (ENFJ, ESFJ): Connects with others, maintains harmony, and makes decisions based on values. May struggle with prioritizing their own needs and desires.
– Auxiliary (INFJ, ISFJ): Supports dominant Ni or Si by considering others’ needs and values.
– Inferior (INTP, ISTP): May have difficulty expressing emotions and navigating social expectations. Can experience moments of emotional outbursts when inferior Fe is triggered. May struggle with expressing emotions and navigating social expectations.
– Example: As a dominant function, Fe might drive someone to constantly prioritize others’ needs over their own.

Introverted Feeling (Fi):

– Dominant (INFP, ISFP): Adheres to personal values, seeks authenticity, and makes subjective judgments. May struggle with expressing emotions and considering others’ perspectives.
– Auxiliary (ENFP, ESFP): Supports dominant Ne or Se by providing a subjective value system and empathy.
– Inferior (ENTJ, ESTJ): May have difficulty understanding and expressing personal emotions and values. Can experience moments of intense emotion when inferior Fi is triggered. May struggle with understanding and expressing personal emotions and values.
– Example: As an inferior function, Fi might cause someone to suddenly feel deeply emotional about a moral issue they previously ignored.

The Shadow Model and Beebe’s Model of Personality

The Shadow Model:

According to the MBTI theory, when individuals rely too heavily on their preferred functions, their less developed functions may become part of their “shadow” – the unconscious aspects of their personality. The shadow functions operate in the background, influencing behavior and decision-making without the individual’s awareness.

When the shadow functions are triggered, often by stress, crisis, or trauma, they can manifest in unproductive or even destructive ways. For example, an individual with inferior Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may struggle to express empathy or may become overly concerned with social harmony during times of stress. Similarly, someone with inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) may become rigid and resistant to change when faced with uncertainty.

Shadow Model Personality Types:

  1. The Opposing Personality (OP):

    • Cause: Emerges when the dominant function is suppressed or neglected.
    • Motivation: To challenge and oppose the dominant function, seeking balance.
    • Drives: Rebelliousness, contrarianism, and a desire to explore the opposite perspective.
  2. The Critical Parent (CP):

    • Cause: Develops from the auxiliary function when it becomes overly critical or judgmental.
    • Motivation: To enforce rules, standards, and expectations on oneself and others.
    • Drives: Perfectionism, self-criticism, and a strong sense of “should” or “must.”
  3. The Deceiving Personality (DP):

    • Cause: Arises when the tertiary function is used to mislead or manipulate others.
    • Motivation: To protect oneself or gain an advantage through deception.
    • Drives: Insecurity, fear of vulnerability, and a desire for control or power.
  4. The Devilish Personality (DE):

    • Cause: Emerges when the inferior function is triggered under stress or pressure.
    • Motivation: To undermine or sabotage one’s own efforts or relationships.
    • Drives: Self-destructive impulses, a sense of helplessness, and a desire to escape or give up.
  5. The Trickster (TR):

    • Cause: Develops from the opposing personality’s dominant function.
    • Motivation: To create chaos, confusion, or humor through unexpected or unconventional means.
    • Drives: Playfulness, irreverence, and a desire to challenge the status quo.
  6. The Demon (DM):

    • Cause: Arises from the opposing personality’s auxiliary function.
    • Motivation: To confront and overcome one’s deepest fears, insecurities, and weaknesses.
    • Drives: Intensity, obsession, and a willingness to face the dark side of oneself or others.
  7. The Senex (SX):

    • Cause: Emerges from the critical parent’s dominant function.
    • Motivation: To provide wisdom, guidance, and perspective based on past experiences.
    • Drives: Nostalgia, tradition, and a desire to preserve knowledge or values.
  8. The Anima/Animus (A/A):

    • Cause: Develops from the critical parent’s auxiliary function.
    • Motivation: To explore and integrate the qualities of the opposite gender within oneself.
    • Drives: Creativity, inspiration, and a desire for wholeness or completeness.

Beebe’s Model of Personality:

The Beebe model, developed by Jungian analyst John Beebe, is an extension of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) that provides a deeper understanding of an individual’s cognitive functions and their role in personality development. While the MBTI identifies the four main functions (Dominant, Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior), the Beebe model expands this by incorporating the concept of shadow functions and assigning archetypal roles to each function position.

Beebe’s model suggests that each individual has access to all eight cognitive functions, but they are used with varying levels of consciousness and proficiency. The first four functions (Dominant, Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior) are considered the “ego-syntonic” functions, meaning they are more readily accepted and integrated into the individual’s sense of self. The remaining four functions (Opposing Personality, Senex/Witch, Trickster, and Demon) are considered the “shadow” functions, which are less conscious and may be repressed or rejected by the individual.

The archetypal roles assigned to each function position in the Beebe model provide a framework for understanding how these functions may manifest in an individual’s life and personality:

  1. The Hero (Dominant) represents the individual’s primary mode of operation and their most developed function.
  2. The Good Parent (Auxiliary) supports the Hero and provides balance and guidance.
  3. The Eternal Child (Tertiary) brings a sense of playfulness, creativity, and spontaneity to the personality.
  4. The Anima/Animus (Inferior) represents the individual’s aspirations, challenges, and opportunities for growth.
  5. The Opposing Personality challenges the Hero’s perspective and encourages growth through conflict and integration.
  6. The Senex/Witch represents the critical, judgmental aspect of the psyche that may hinder growth and relationships.
  7. The Trickster creates chaos and challenges the individual’s assumptions, fostering adaptability and resilience.
  8. The Demon embodies the deepest fears and unconscious patterns that must be confronted for true transformation.

By understanding these archetypal roles and their associated cognitive functions, individuals can gain valuable insights into their own personality development, interpersonal dynamics, and potential areas for growth. The Beebe model encourages a more nuanced and compassionate understanding of oneself and others, recognizing that each individual is a complex tapestry of conscious and unconscious functions, all of which contribute to their unique personality and life experiences.

In practical application, the Beebe model can be used for personal growth, therapy, and character development in storytelling. By identifying and exploring the various functions and their archetypal roles, individuals can work towards integrating their shadow functions, overcoming limiting patterns, and achieving greater wholeness and self-awareness. In storytelling, the Beebe model provides a rich framework for creating complex, psychologically realistic characters and understanding their motivations, conflicts, and transformative journeys.

Overall, the Beebe model offers a deep and insightful extrapolation of the MBTI, providing a powerful tool for self-discovery, personal growth, and the creation of compelling narratives that resonate with the complexities of the human experience.

The Beebe Model Types:

Here’s the combined information for each function position and its associated MBTI types, along with their motivations, shadows, and potential story roles:

Dominant (Hero)

ENFP, ENTP: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
INFP, ISFP: Introverted Feeling (Fi)
ENTJ, ESTJ: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
INTJ, INFJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ESTP, ESFP: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ISTP, INTP: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ESFJ, ENFJ: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ISTJ, ISFJ: Introverted Sensing (Si)
Motivation: The dominant function is the primary driver of the individual’s personality and decision-making process. It is the function they are most comfortable with and rely on the most.
Shadow: The shadow of the dominant function is the fifth function, known as the Opposing Personality. It represents qualities that the individual may see as undesirable or conflicting with their dominant function. Integrating this function can lead to personal growth.
Story Role: The dominant function often determines the character’s main strength and approach to challenges. They may embody the archetype of the Hero, using their dominant function to overcome obstacles and achieve their goals.

Auxiliary (Good Parent)

ENFP, ESFP: Introverted Feeling (Fi)
ENTP, INTP: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ENTJ, INTJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ESTP, ISTP: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ENFJ, INFJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
INFP, ISFP: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
Motivation: The auxiliary function supports the dominant function and provides balance to the personality. It helps the individual navigate situations where their dominant function may not be sufficient.
Shadow: The shadow of the auxiliary function is the sixth function, known as the Senex/Witch. It represents the critical, judgmental aspect of the psyche that may undermine the supportive nature of the auxiliary function.
Story Role: The auxiliary function can manifest as a mentor or supportive figure, guiding the hero and offering a different perspective. It may also represent the character’s ability to adapt and find alternative solutions.

Tertiary (Eternal Child)

ENFP, INFP: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ENTP, INTP: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ENTJ, INTJ: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
ESTP, ISTP: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ENFJ, INFJ: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ESFP, ISFP: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
Motivation: The tertiary function is less developed than the dominant and auxiliary functions but can provide a sense of playfulness, creativity, and relief from the more serious aspects of the personality.
Shadow: The shadow of the tertiary function is the seventh function, known as the Trickster. It represents the mischievous, disruptive aspect of the psyche that may challenge the individual’s growth and development.
Story Role: The tertiary function can add depth to a character, showing a more lighthearted or vulnerable side. It may also represent the character’s potential for growth and the challenges they face in embracing new aspects of themselves.

Inferior (Anima/Animus)

ENFP, INFP: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
ENTP, INTP: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ENTJ, INTJ: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
ESTP, ISTP: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ENFJ, INFJ: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ESFP, ISFP: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
Motivation: The inferior function is the least developed and can be a source of insecurity, challenge, and growth. It represents qualities that the individual may admire in others but struggle to express themselves.
Shadow: The shadow of the inferior function is the eighth function, known as the Demon. It represents the deepest fears and unconscious patterns that can sabotage the individual’s growth and relationships.
Story Role: The inferior function often represents the character’s key area for growth and transformation. It may manifest as an inner conflict or a powerful attraction to characters who embody the qualities of the inferior function. Confronting and integrating the inferior function can lead to significant personal development.

Opposing Personality

ENFP, INFP: Introverted Feeling (Fi)
ENTP, INTP: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ENTJ, INTJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ESTP, ISTP: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ENFJ, INFJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ESFP, ISFP: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
Motivation: The opposing personality represents qualities that the individual may see as undesirable or conflicting with their dominant function. Integrating this function can lead to greater balance and self-awareness.
Story Role: The opposing personality may manifest as an antagonist or rival who challenges the hero’s dominant perspective. It can also represent the hero’s inner conflicts and the need to embrace a more balanced approach.

Senex/Witch

ENFP, INFP: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ENTP, INTP: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ENTJ, INTJ: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
ESTP, ISTP: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ENFJ, INFJ: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ESFP, ISFP: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
Motivation: The Senex/Witch represents the critical, judgmental aspect of the psyche that may undermine the individual’s growth and relationships.
Story Role: The Senex/Witch may manifest as a strict authority figure, a harsh inner critic, or a character who represents the consequences of not embracing growth and change.

Trickster

ENFP, INFP: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ENTP, INTP: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
ENTJ, INTJ: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ESTP, ISTP: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ENFJ, INFJ: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ESFP, ISFP: Introverted Sensing (Si)
Motivation: The Trickster represents the mischievous, disruptive aspect of the psyche that challenges the individual’s assumptions and beliefs.
Story Role: The Trickster may appear as a character who creates chaos and confusion, forcing the hero to question their perspective and adapt to new situations. It can also represent the hero’s own tendency to undermine their growth through self-sabotage or avoidance.

Demon

ENFP, INFP: Introverted Thinking (Ti)
ENTP, INTP: Introverted Feeling (Fi)
ENTJ, INTJ: Introverted Sensing (Si)
ESTJ, ISTJ: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ESTP, ISTP: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
ESFJ, ISFJ: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
ENFJ, INFJ: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
ESFP, ISFP: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
Motivation: The Demon represents the deepest fears, unconscious patterns, and repressed aspects of the psyche that can sabotage the individual’s growth and relationships.
Story Role: The Demon may manifest as the hero’s ultimate challenge, a powerful villain, or a dark aspect of the hero’s own psyche that must be confronted and integrated for true transformation to occur. Overcoming the Demon can lead to significant growth and self-realization.

Application of the Beebe Model in Character Development:

Beebe’s model can be particularly useful in character development, as it provides a framework for understanding how a character’s personality may change and grow over the course of a story. By identifying a character’s dominant and inferior functions, as well as their shadow functions, writers can create more realistic and compelling character arcs.

For example, in the context of the Dan Harmon story wheel or Joseph Campbell’s hero’s journey, a character’s inferior function may be triggered during the “ordeal” or “abyss” stage, forcing them to confront their deepest fears and weaknesses. As the character overcomes these challenges and integrates their shadow functions, they may experience a transformation and emerge with a more balanced and mature personality.

Furthermore, Beebe’s model can help writers understand how characters with different personality types may interact and influence each other. By considering the interplay between characters’ dominant, auxiliary, and shadow functions, writers can create more dynamic and realistic relationships that drive the story forward.

Conclusion:
The shadow model and Beebe’s model of personality provide valuable insights into the unconscious aspects of the psyche and how they influence behavior and decision-making. By understanding these models, individuals can work towards integrating their shadow functions and achieving a more balanced personality. In the context of character development, these models offer writers a powerful tool for creating complex, realistic characters that undergo meaningful transformations over the course of a story.

The Beebe model of personality can be extrapolated to create a cosmology for world-building in fiction or role-playing games. By assigning each function-attitude pair to a specific aspect of the world, writers and dungeon masters can create a rich, interconnected universe that challenges characters and drives story development.

Cosmology and World-Building:

  1. Dominant (Hero): The central theme or ethos of the world, the driving force behind the culture and its values.
  2. Auxiliary (Good Parent): The nurturing and supportive aspects of the world, such as institutions, mentors, or resources that help characters grow and develop.
  3. Tertiary (Eternal Child): The playful, creative, and imaginative elements of the world, such as art, music, or magical creatures.
  4. Inferior (Anima/Animus): The mysterious, unconscious, or hidden aspects of the world, such as forgotten lore, ancient ruins, or secret societies.
  5. Opposing Personality: The contradictory or opposing forces in the world, such as rival factions, conflicting ideologies, or natural disasters.
  6. Senex/Witch: The strict, controlling, or judgmental aspects of the world, such as oppressive governments, rigid social hierarchies, or powerful nemeses.
  7. Trickster: The unpredictable, chaotic, or deceptive elements of the world, such as shape-shifters, illusions, or ambiguous prophecies.
  8. Demon: The darkest, most destructive aspects of the world, such as evil entities, cursed artifacts, or apocalyptic events.

Challenging the Protagonist: To create a compelling story, the world should challenge the protagonist by forcing them to confront their inferior functions. For example, a protagonist with inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) may struggle in a world that demands quick action and adaptability. They may find themselves in situations where they must rely on their physical prowess or improvise solutions under pressure, pushing them outside their comfort zone.

Similarly, a protagonist with inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) may be tested in a world that requires them to make difficult moral choices or stand up for their personal values. They may encounter situations where they must navigate complex emotions or forge deep, authentic connections with others, challenging their tendency to prioritize logic and objectivity.

Foreshadowing the Antagonist’s Downfall: The Beebe model can also be used to plant clues about the antagonist’s weaknesses or potential downfall. By subtly highlighting the antagonist’s inferior functions, writers can create a sense of dramatic irony and foreshadow their eventual defeat.

For instance, an antagonist with inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) may be blind to the long-term consequences of their actions or fail to anticipate the hero’s unconventional strategies. Their single-minded focus on short-term goals may ultimately lead to their undoing.

Examples from Movies:

  1. In “The Lord of the Rings,” Frodo Baggins, an INFP protagonist, must confront his inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) by taking on a leadership role and making strategic decisions to save Middle-earth.
  2. In “The Devil Wears Prada,” Andy Sachs, an ISFP protagonist, must navigate the demanding and competitive world of fashion journalism, challenging her inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) by requiring her to adapt to new situations and think on her feet.
  3. In “The Dark Knight,” the Joker, an ENTP antagonist, embodies the chaotic and unpredictable nature of the Trickster archetype, while his inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) is revealed through his disregard for tradition and his inability to learn from past experiences.

By applying the Beebe model to world-building and character development, writers and dungeon masters can create immersive, psychologically rich stories that resonate with audiences and keep them engaged.

Applying the Beebe Model to Different Types of Literary Modes and Elements:

  1. Ecocriticism and environmental humanities: This field examines the relationship between literature and the environment, focusing on how human activities impact the natural world.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may have a deep connection to the natural world and a strong sense of environmental responsibility. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be challenged by a rapidly changing, unpredictable climate, forcing them to adapt and find innovative solutions.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) may prioritize industrial progress and efficiency over environmental concerns. Their inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) could be confronted when they are forced to face the emotional and moral consequences of their actions on the environment and the people affected by it.
  2. Posthumanism and transhumanism: These theories explore the boundaries between human and non-human entities, often focusing on the impact of technology on human evolution and identity.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) may be fascinated by the potential of technology to transcend human limitations. Their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) could be challenged when they must navigate the practical and ethical implications of merging with technology.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may seek to control and manipulate the development of transhumanist technologies for their own gain. Their inferior Introverted Thinking (Ti) could be exposed when they are confronted with logical inconsistencies or unintended consequences in their plans.
  3. Metafiction and self-reflexive narratives: These stories draw attention to their own fictional nature, often blurring the lines between reality and fiction.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) may struggle with the authenticity of their own experiences and emotions within a self-reflexive narrative. Their inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) could be challenged when they must navigate the complex, meta-textual structure of the story.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) may revel in the playful, subversive nature of metafiction, using it to manipulate and disorient the protagonist and the reader. Their inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) could be confronted when they become trapped within the very fictional constructs they have created.
  4. Queer theory and LGBTQ+ representation: This field examines the ways in which gender and sexuality are represented and constructed in literature, challenging traditional binary norms.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may be highly attuned to the social and emotional experiences of LGBTQ+ characters, seeking to create a sense of community and acceptance. Their inferior Introverted Thinking (Ti) could be challenged when they must confront and deconstruct internalized binary norms and prejudices.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may rigidly adhere to traditional gender roles and norms, actively opposing LGBTQ+ representation and rights. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to acknowledge the diversity and fluidity of gender and sexual identities.
  5. Affect theory and emotional resonance: This approach focuses on the role of emotions and affective states in literature, examining how texts evoke and manipulate readers’ feelings.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may be highly attuned to the emotional dynamics of the story, seeking to create a sense of harmony and connection with others. Their inferior Introverted Thinking (Ti) could be challenged when they must confront and analyze complex, ambiguous emotional situations.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may be emotionally detached and resistant to change, relying on established patterns and routines. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to adapt to new emotional dynamics and possibilities.
  6. Intersectionality and identity politics: This approach examines the ways in which various aspects of identity (such as race, gender, class, and sexuality) intersect and influence each other, shaping individuals’ experiences and social power dynamics.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) may be highly aware of the complex, intersectional nature of identity, seeking to explore and challenge established norms and categories. Their inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) could be challenged when they must navigate the concrete, practical implications of their intersectional identity.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Thinking (Ti) may adhere to rigid, hierarchical systems of identity and power, resisting efforts to challenge or dismantle these structures. Their inferior Extraverted Feeling (Fe) could be confronted when they are forced to confront the emotional and social consequences of their beliefs.
  7. Postcolonial studies and decolonization: This field examines the literary and cultural legacies of colonialism, focusing on the experiences and perspectives of colonized peoples and the process of decolonization.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) may be deeply committed to preserving and asserting their cultural identity in the face of colonial oppression. Their inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) could be challenged when they must navigate the complex, often contradictory demands of decolonization.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Sensing (Se) may embody the colonial mindset, seeking to dominate and exploit colonized peoples and resources. Their inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) could be confronted when they are forced to reckon with the long-term consequences and moral implications of their actions.
  8. Trauma theory and intergenerational trauma: This approach examines the psychological and emotional impact of trauma on individuals and communities, often exploring how trauma is passed down through generations.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) may be haunted by the intergenerational trauma of their family or community, seeking to uncover and heal the deep-seated patterns and wounds. Their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) could be challenged when they must confront the immediate, tangible impact of trauma on their lives.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) may perpetuate cycles of trauma through their adherence to oppressive systems and ideologies. Their inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) could be confronted when they are forced to face the emotional and moral consequences of their actions.
  9. Digital humanities and new media studies: This field explores the intersection of technology and the humanities, examining how digital tools and platforms shape literary and cultural production and reception.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) may be fascinated by the creative and subversive potential of new media, seeking to push the boundaries of traditional storytelling. Their inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) could be challenged when they must navigate the technical and practical constraints of digital platforms.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may resist the disruptive influence of new media, seeking to maintain established norms and hierarchies. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to adapt to the rapidly evolving digital landscape.
  10. Speculative fiction and cli-fi (climate fiction): These genres explore the potential consequences of current social, political, and environmental trends, often set in the near or distant future.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) may be driven by a vision of a dystopian future shaped by climate change, seeking to warn and inspire action in the present. Their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) could be challenged when they must confront the immediate, tangible impact of climate change on their world.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) may prioritize short-term gains and technological solutions over long-term environmental sustainability. Their inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) could be confronted when they are forced to face the moral and emotional consequences of their actions.
  11. Metafiction and self-reflexive narratives: As previously explained.
  12. Globalization and transnationalism: This approach examines the ways in which literature reflects and shapes the increasingly interconnected nature of the world, exploring themes of cultural exchange, migration, and global power dynamics.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may be deeply invested in fostering cross-cultural understanding and empathy, seeking to build bridges across national and cultural divides. Their inferior Introverted Thinking (Ti) could be challenged when they must navigate complex, often contradictory global power structures.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may resist the disruptive influence of globalization, seeking to maintain established cultural norms and hierarchies. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to adapt to the rapidly evolving global landscape.
  13. Afrofuturism and Black speculative fiction: These genres explore the intersection of African diaspora culture with science fiction, fantasy, and speculative fiction, often challenging dominant narratives and imagining alternative futures.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) may be deeply committed to preserving and asserting their cultural identity, seeking to imagine empowering Afrofuturist visions. Their inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) could be challenged when they must navigate the complex, often oppressive realities of the present.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Sensing (Se) may embody the dominant, oppressive power structures that Afrofuturism seeks to challenge and subvert. Their inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) could be confronted when they are forced to reckon with alternative, liberatory visions of the future.
  14. Disability studies and neurodiversity: This field examines the representation and experiences of individuals with disabilities and neurodivergent identities in literature, challenging ableist norms and assumptions.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may have a deep, personal understanding of their own neurodivergent or disabled experience, seeking to navigate a world that often misunderstands or marginalizes them. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be challenged when they must adapt to new, unfamiliar situations and advocate for their needs.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) may adhere to rigid, ableist systems and expectations, dismissing or devaluing the experiences of neurodivergent and disabled individuals. Their inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) could be confronted when they are forced to face the emotional and moral consequences of their beliefs.
  15. Marxist criticism and class analysis: This approach examines literature through the lens of class struggle and economic power relations, often critiquing capitalist ideologies and structures.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may be deeply committed to social justice and equality, seeking to challenge and dismantle oppressive class hierarchies. Their inferior Introverted Thinking (Ti) could be challenged when they must navigate complex, often contradictory economic and political theories.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may benefit from and defend the established capitalist order, resisting efforts to challenge or reform the system. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to confront the long-term consequences and unsustainability of their economic worldview.
  16. Feminist criticism and gender studies: This field examines the ways in which gender and power intersect in literature, often challenging patriarchal norms and assumptions.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) may have a deep, personal commitment to gender equality and feminist values, seeking to assert their own identity and agency in a patriarchal world. Their inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) could be challenged when they must navigate complex, often hostile social and institutional structures.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Sensing (Se) may embody toxic masculinity and patriarchal aggression, seeking to maintain gender-based power imbalances. Their inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) could be confronted when they are forced to reckon with the long-term consequences and moral implications of their actions.
  17. Psychoanalytic criticism and Lacanian theory: This approach applies the insights of psychoanalysis to the interpretation of literature, often exploring the unconscious desires, fears, and conflicts of characters and authors.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) may be haunted by unconscious traumas and desires, seeking to uncover and integrate the hidden aspects of their psyche. Their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) could be challenged when they must confront the immediate, tangible manifestations of their psychological conflicts.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) may repress and deny their own unconscious needs and emotions, projecting them onto others in destructive ways. Their inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) could be confronted when they are forced to face the psychological and moral consequences of their actions.
  18. Poststructuralism and deconstruction: This approach challenges the idea of stable, inherent meaning in literature, emphasizing the role of language, power, and interpretation in shaping our understanding of texts and reality.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) may be fascinated by the playful, subversive potential of language and interpretation, seeking to challenge and deconstruct established norms and meanings. Their inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) could be challenged when they must navigate the concrete, practical implications of their deconstructive insights.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may resist the destabilizing influence of poststructuralist ideas, seeking to maintain established meanings and hierarchies. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to adapt to the fluid, constantly shifting nature of language and interpretation.
  19. Magical realism and slipstream fiction: These genres blend elements of realism and the fantastic, often exploring the interplay between the mundane and the miraculous in everyday life.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) may be deeply attuned to the magical, transformative potential of their own emotions and imagination, seeking to navigate a world that blends the real and the surreal. Their inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) could be challenged when they must confront the practical, logical constraints of their magical realist reality.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Sensing (Se) may resist the disruptive, destabilizing influence of magical realist elements, seeking to maintain a purely materialistic worldview. Their inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) could be confronted when they are forced to reckon with the deeper, symbolic meanings and possibilities of their slipstream world.
  20. Multimodal storytelling and transmedia narratives: These approaches involve telling stories across multiple media platforms, often creating immersive, participatory experiences for audiences.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) may be excited by the creative, innovative potential of multimodal storytelling, seeking to explore and combine different media in unexpected ways. Their inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) could be challenged when they must navigate the technical and practical constraints of transmedia production.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may resist the disruptive, boundary-blurring nature of multimodal narratives, seeking to maintain established storytelling norms and hierarchies. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to adapt to the evolving, participatory landscape of transmedia storytelling.
  21. Unreliable narrators and psychological suspense: These techniques involve the use of narrators whose credibility is questionable, often creating a sense of uncertainty, tension, and psychological depth in the narrative.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Thinking (Ti) may be drawn to the intellectual puzzle of an unreliable narrator, seeking to unravel the logical inconsistencies and hidden truths of the story. Their inferior Extraverted Feeling (Fe) could be challenged when they must navigate the emotional and interpersonal consequences of their obsessive quest for truth.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Feeling (Fe) may use their charm and emotional manipulation to deceive and mislead the narrator and reader, creating a sense of psychological suspense and uncertainty. Their inferior Introverted Thinking (Ti) could be confronted when they are forced to face the logical consequences and inconsistencies of their deceptive narrative.
  22. Hypertext fiction and interactive narratives: These forms of literature involve non-linear, interactive storytelling, often using digital platforms to create branching, multi-layered narratives.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Extraverted Intuition (Ne) may be fascinated by the creative, exploratory potential of hypertext fiction, seeking to discover new connections and possibilities within the interactive narrative. Their inferior Introverted Sensing (Si) could be challenged when they must navigate the concrete, technical constraints of the digital platform.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Introverted Sensing (Si) may resist the disruptive, non-linear nature of hypertext fiction, seeking to maintain established narrative norms and structures. Their inferior Extraverted Intuition (Ne) could be confronted when they are forced to adapt to the fluid, constantly shifting landscape of interactive storytelling.
  23. Ethnofuturism and Indigenous futurism: These genres explore the intersection of Indigenous cultures and knowledge systems with science fiction, speculative fiction, and futurism.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) may be deeply committed to preserving and asserting their Indigenous identity and worldview, seeking to imagine decolonial, Indigenous-centered futures. Their inferior Extraverted Thinking (Te) could be challenged when they must navigate the complex, often oppressive realities of the present.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Sensing (Se) may embody the colonial, extractive mindset that threatens Indigenous futures, seeking to exploit and erase Indigenous cultures and knowledge systems. Their inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) could be confronted when they are forced to reckon with the long-term consequences and unsustainability of their worldview.
  24. Ecocide and Anthropocene fiction: These genres explore the devastating impact of human activities on the environment, often imagining dystopian or apocalyptic futures shaped by ecological collapse.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Intuition (Ni) may be haunted by visions of a bleak, ecologically devastated future, seeking to warn and inspire action in the present. Their inferior Extraverted Sensing (Se) could be challenged when they must confront the immediate, tangible reality of environmental destruction.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) may prioritize short-term economic gains and technological solutions over long-term ecological sustainability, contributing to the unfolding ecocide. Their inferior Introverted Feeling (Fi) could be confronted when they are forced to face the moral and emotional consequences of their actions.
  25. Posthuman subjectivity and cyborg theory: These approaches explore the ways in which technology and human identity intersect and evolve, often challenging traditional notions of the human subject.
    • Example 1: A protagonist with dominant Introverted Thinking (Ti) may be fascinated by the philosophical and existential implications of posthuman subjectivity, seeking to understand and embrace their own hybrid, cyborg identity. Their inferior Extraverted Feeling (Fe) could be challenged when they must navigate the social and emotional complexities of a posthuman world.
    • Example 2: An antagonist with dominant Extraverted Sensing (Se) may resist the blurring of boundaries between human and machine, seeking to maintain a rigid, essentialist notion of human identity. Their inferior Introverted Intuition (Ni) could be confronted when they are forced to reckon with the inevitable evolution

 

 

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