Unlocking Cosmology and Worldview with the Beebe Model

by | Apr 25, 2024 | 0 comments

Mapping the Mythic Psyche

If you unfamiliar with it we go over the Beebe model for screenwriters in granular detail here: https://gettherapybirmingham.com/applying-jungian-psychology-to-fiction-and-screenwriting-part-3-personality-theories/


The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a popular tool for understanding individual personality differences. But when combined with John Beebe’s model of the eight cognitive functions, it becomes a powerful lens for exploring not just how someone thinks and acts, but the implicit worldview and emotional cosmology that shapes their experience. By mapping out the hierarchy of functions for a given type, we gain insight into the hidden myths, fears, and assumptions that underlie a person’s surface behavior – the “story” that their psyche is unconsciously living out.

This application of the Beebe model has profound implications for fields like psychotherapy, screenwriting, and even political analysis. It provides a framework for decoding the complex interplay of light and shadow within an individual or collective psyche, revealing the archetypal energies that drive their growth and transformation. Let’s explore some of the key principles and possibilities of this approach.

Main Ideas and Key Points:

  1. The Beebe model combines the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator with eight cognitive functions to provide insight into personality and worldview.
  2. This model maps cognitive functions to archetypal roles within the psyche, revealing hidden myths, fears, and assumptions.
  3. The model has applications in psychotherapy, screenwriting, political analysis, and understanding individual and collective psyches.
  4. Each personality type has an implicit emotional cosmology based on their function hierarchy.
  5. The model can be used to analyze political movements, ideologies, and historical moments.
  6. It’s useful for analyzing fictional worlds and characters, providing insight into authors’ psychological lenses.
  7. The Beebe model helps in writing authentic dialogue and crafting complex characters.
  8. It can be applied to improve real-world communication and bridge ideological divides.
  9. The document provides examples of how the model applies to various works of fiction and their creators.
  10. The Beebe model can be used in role-playing games like Dungeons & Dragons to create more psychologically rich characters and scenarios.
  11. The approach bridges universal archetypes with individual personality, providing a framework for self-understanding and growth.
  12. It emphasizes the importance of integrating both light and shadow aspects of personality for personal development.
  13. The model has broad applications across fields including arts, cultural analysis, and fostering empathy in a polarized world.

The Eight Function Model: A Cosmic Compass

Beebe’s model assigns each of the eight cognitive functions (Extraverted Sensing, Introverted Sensing, Extraverted Intuition, Introverted Intuition, Extraverted Thinking, Introverted Thinking, Extraverted Feeling, and Introverted Feeling) to a specific archetypal role within the psyche. The first four functions make up the “ego-syntonic” realm of the Hero, Good Parent, Puer/Puella, and Anima/Animus. These represent the conscious strengths, values, and aspirations of the individual.

The second four functions comprise the “ego-dystonic” realm of the Shadow, Witch/Senex, Trickster, and Demon. These are the unconscious, undeveloped, or rejected parts of the self that often show up as blind spots, challenges, or eruptions from the depths.

By understanding which functions occupy each role for a given type, we can construct a vivid picture of their inner landscape – the archetypal cast of characters that populate their psychic theater. This provides a roadmap for anticipating their stumbling blocks and growth opportunities, as well as the deeper existential issues they may be grappling with.

Extrapolating Emotional Cosmology

One of the most powerful applications of the Beebe model is its ability to illuminate the implicit cosmology or worldview that an individual’s emotional system is operating within. Each function carries with it a set of assumptions and beliefs about reality, rooted in the core needs and fears of the corresponding archetype.

For example, an INFP with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) in the Hero role may be driven by a deep commitment to authenticity, meaning, and individual values. Their emotional cosmology is likely to be one in which the universe is fundamentally benevolent, everyone has a unique purpose to fulfill, and following one’s heart is the ultimate moral compass. They may struggle with the shadow of Extraverted Thinking (Te) in the Witch/Senex role, fearing a world of cold rationality, bureaucratic control, and soulless conformity.

In contrast, an ESTJ with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) in the Hero role may operate within an emotional cosmology of objective truth, efficient systems, and earned hierarchies. They may believe that the universe rewards hard work and logical analysis, and that emotions are suspect or self-indulgent. Their Introverted Feeling (Fi) shadow in the Witch/Senex role may carry unacknowledged fears of moral relativism, ambiguity, and the chaos of unchecked feelings.

By fleshing out the cosmology implicit in each function-archetype, we can better understand the underlying beliefs, desires, and terrors that shape an individual’s worldview and behavior. This provides a compassionate framework for appreciating the positive intentions behind even destructive patterns, while also identifying the key challenges and polarities that need to be reconciled for growth.

Political & Cultural Analysis through the Beebe Lens

This method of archetypal analysis can also be scaled up to explore the collective psyche of political movements, ideologies, and historical moments. By examining the dominant myths, rhetoric, and behaviors of a group through the lens of the Beebe model, we can gain insight into the hidden fears, desires, and assumptions that drive its development.

Take, for example, the right-wing QAnon conspiracy theory movement. With its emphasis on uncovering hidden patterns, decoding secret messages, and exposing nefarious plots, QAnon seems to be operating primarily from an Extraverted Intuition (Ne) mindset. Its Hero myth revolves around the lone truth-seeker connecting the dots and saving the world from sinister forces.

But this heroic Ne is likely masking a deeper Introverted Sensing (Si) shadow – a fear of chaos, uncertainty, and the loss of familiar structures and traditions. QAnon’s obsession with pedophilia rings and satanic cabals points to the Witch/Senex archetype of a world overrun by evil and moral decay, in which only strict purity and a return to an idealized past can save us.

On the opposite end of the political spectrum, the “woke” social justice left often operates within an Introverted Feeling (Fi) value system, with a heroic self-image of moral righteousness, empathy for the oppressed, and defense of the marginalized. But this Fi crusader can carry the shadow of Extraverted Thinking (Te) cynicism and intellectual arrogance, dismissing alternative views as ignorant or bigoted.

In both cases, applying the Beebe model helps us understand the deeper existential concerns and emotional investments behind political positions. It fosters curiosity and nuance, resisting the tendency to caricature or demonize the other side. By recognizing the archetypal energies at play, we can work to address the real fears and longings beneath ideological battles.

Fictional Cosmologies & the Psyche of the Author

This type of analysis is also remarkably fruitful when applied to fictional worlds and cosmologies. The universes constructed by authors, screenwriters, and world-builders are invariably shaped by their own psychological lenses and preoccupations, even if unconsciously. By dissecting a fictional cosmology through the Beebe model, we can reverse-engineer a vivid portrait of the creator’s inner world.

Consider H.P. Lovecraft’s Cthulhu Mythos, with its bleak cosmos of ancient aliens, eldritch abominations, and the utter insignificance of humanity. This nihilistic vision suggests an Introverted Thinking (Ti) worldview taken to its darkest extremes – a universe of pitiless cosmic laws and structures in which human values and emotions are laughably irrelevant. Lovecraft’s neurotic disgust for the body and sexuality also points to an Extraverted Sensing (Se) shadow of revulsion toward the physical world, seeing it as a site of monstrous contamination.

In contrast, the techno-utopian futures of classic science fiction authors like Arthur C. Clarke and Isaac Asimov reflect an Extraverted Thinking (Te) cosmology of scientific progress and rational mastery over nature. The shadow here may be a repressed Introverted Feeling (Fi), with its yearning for a human-centered meaning and purpose that transcends technological achievement. By surfacing the function-attitudes behind fictional worlds, we gain a powerful interpretive key for unlocking their deeper themes and psychological implications, as well as insight into the animating vision of their creators.

Therapeutic Applications & Character Development

For therapists, the Beebe model provides a invaluable tool for helping clients explore their hidden assumptions, blind spots, and untapped potentials. By mapping a client’s cognitive functions to the eight archetypes, the therapist can guide them through a rich symbolic world of light and shadow. They can demonstrate how the “story” that the client is telling with their dominant functions may be keeping them stuck in limiting patterns, and how developing the shadow functions can lead to greater wholeness and adaptability.

This kind of deep, mythic reframing is especially potent for addressing issues of meaning, purpose, and identity. When a client can locate their struggles within a larger archetypal context, they tap into the “heroic” dimension of the psyche that knows intuitively how to navigate challenges and transform suffering into wisdom. By externalizing their inner cast of characters, they can foster dialogue between different parts of themselves and begin to integrate conflicting energies.

Similarly, for writers and screenwriters, the Beebe model offers a sophisticated template for crafting complex, psychologically compelling characters. By constructing a character’s “function stack” and extrapolating their emotional cosmology, the writer can develop a nuanced understanding of their motivations, fears, and potential arc of transformation. They can foreshadow challenges the character will face as they confront the shadow and anticipate the key lessons they’ll need to learn for growth.

Writing Authentic Dialogue with the Beebe Model

One of the most powerful applications of the Beebe model for writers is in crafting authentic, psychologically-rich dialogue. By understanding a character’s cognitive function hierarchy, the writer can predict how they are likely to communicate, what kinds of topics and concerns will preoccupy them, and how they will respond to different situations and personalities.

For example, a character with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te) is likely to speak in a direct, logical manner, focused on practical solutions and external systems. Their dialogue may be peppered with references to efficiency, empirical evidence, and objective standards. They may grow impatient with more meandering, feelings-focused conversations.

In contrast, a character with dominant Introverted Feeling (Fi) will probably communicate in a more poetic, metaphorical way, concerned with inner values, authenticity, and individual self-expression. They may use more subjective, emotionally-charged language and be drawn to discussions of meaning, morality, and personal growth.

By fleshing out a character’s function stack, the writer can also anticipate the “blind spots” and inferential leaps in their communication style. An Introverted Intuition (Ni) dominant character may make sudden, uncanny insights that seem to come out of nowhere, leaving others confused. An Extraverted Sensation (Se) dominant character may blurt out unfiltered observations about the physical world, not realizing how they land emotionally.

The Beebe model can also help writers create believable tensions and misunderstandings between characters. Pairing characters with opposing function attitudes is a recipe for both comedy and drama. Imagine the sparks that would fly between an Introverted Thinking (Ti) character, with their love of abstract logic and theoretical speculation, and an Extraverted Sensation (Se) character, with their thirst for concrete action and physical thrills.

By embodying their characters’ cognitive functions, writers can drop into an authentic voice and let the dialogue emerge organically. They can ask themselves, “How would an Extraverted Feeling (Fe) character respond to this situation? What would trigger the fears of an Introverted Sensation (Si) character here?” The Beebe model provides a rich, archetypally-grounded template for stepping into a character’s emotional reality and bringing them to vivid life on the page.

Communicating Across Difference with the Beebe Model

The same principles that make the Beebe model so useful for writing dialogue also apply to real-world communication and persuasion. By identifying someone’s dominant cognitive functions, we can tailor our message and delivery to resonate with their values, priorities, and communication style. At the same time, by considering their shadow functions, we can anticipate their likely objections, fears, and blind spots, and proactively address them.

This is especially valuable in contexts where we need to build bridges across different personality types and ideological divides. Whether we’re therapists working with diverse clients, leaders managing a team with a range of perspectives, or activists trying to build a coalition around a cause, the Beebe model can help us communicate in a way that honors people’s unique lenses while finding common ground.

For instance, when speaking to a group with a strong Extraverted Thinking (Te) representation, it would be wise to emphasize practical solutions, empirical data, and the logical benefits of a proposed idea. Anticipate their Introverted Feeling (Fi) shadow by addressing potential ethical objections and demonstrating how the idea aligns with their values.

When communicating with a more Introverted Feeling (Fi) audience, focus on the personal, moral dimensions of an issue and how it impacts real individuals. Use vivid stories and examples to make your points, and give space for people to reflect on their own feelings and experiences. Be prepared for their Extraverted Thinking (Te) shadow to emerge through skepticism around implementation and results.

The Beebe model can also guide us in navigating interpersonal conflicts and misunderstandings. If we can recognize that someone’s apparent stubbornness or insensitivity is coming from their dominant function, we can respond with more patience and skill. For example, an Extraverted Sensation (Se) boss who gives blunt, in-the-moment feedback may not intend to be harsh – they are simply speaking from their need for direct, physical engagement. By understanding this, a hurt employee can reframe the interaction and respond in a way that honors their own needs while not “poking the shadow.”

Ultimately, communicating with the Beebe model in mind is about learning to honor the diversity of human cognition and motivation. It’s about developing the flexibility to step outside our own lenses and appreciate different ways of making meaning. In a world where so much conflict arises from people talking past each other, this archetypal roadmap is an essential tool for fostering understanding and collaboration across differences.

Personality Styles:

Analytical Personalities:

Analytical individuals tend to be logical, detail-oriented, and fact-driven in their thinking. They value accuracy, efficiency, and objective problem-solving. These personalities often excel at research, analysis, and tasks that require a systematic approach. They may be seen as reserved, impartial, and more comfortable with data than emotions. Analytical types thrive on finding the most efficient and effective solutions, and they often enjoy delving into complex problems to uncover the underlying truths.

Expressive Personalities:

Expressive personalities are often energetic, creative, and spontaneous in their thinking. They tend to value self-expression, personal connection, and the exploration of ideas. These individuals thrive in roles that allow them to showcase their imagination, communication skills, and ability to inspire others. They may be perceived as outgoing, passionate, and more attuned to feelings than logical processes. Expressive types often find joy in brainstorming, problem-solving through unconventional means, and fostering a sense of excitement and enthusiasm.

Amiable Personalities:

Amiable personalities are typically empathetic, cooperative, and focused on maintaining harmonious relationships. They value harmony, teamwork, and catering to the needs of others. These individuals excel in roles that involve supporting, nurturing, and facilitating the growth of others. They may be seen as approachable, patient, and more concerned with the emotional landscape than strict adherence to rules or procedures. Amiable types often find fulfillment in creating a positive and inclusive environment, and they are skilled at navigating interpersonal dynamics.

Decisive Personalities:

Decisive personalities are often assertive, results-oriented, and comfortable with taking charge. They tend to value efficiency, productivity, and the achievement of tangible goals. These individuals often excel in leadership roles, where they can leverage their decisiveness, problem-solving skills, and drive to get things done. They may be perceived as confident, ambitious, and more focused on outcomes than the preferences of others. Decisive types thrive on setting clear objectives, taking decisive action, and ensuring that tasks are completed in a timely and effective manner.

Cautious Personalities:

Cautious personalities are typically risk-averse, detail-oriented, and focused on maintaining stability. They value security, accuracy, and adherence to established procedures. These individuals often excel in roles that require meticulous attention to detail, such as accounting, quality assurance, or project management. They may be seen as conscientious, organized, and more concerned with mitigating potential risks than embracing uncertainty. Cautious types find comfort in following established protocols and ensuring that every aspect of a project or task is thoroughly considered.

Spontaneous Personalities:

Spontaneous personalities are often impulsive, adaptable, and open to new experiences. They tend to value excitement, flexibility, and the ability to seize opportunities as they arise. These individuals thrive in roles that allow them to respond quickly to changing circumstances, such as sales, customer service, or emergency response. They may be perceived as adventurous, unconventional, and more focused on the present moment than long-term planning. Spontaneous types often find satisfaction in embracing the unexpected, thinking on their feet, and finding creative solutions to problems as they emerge.

Systematic Personalities:

Systematic personalities are typically organized, detail-oriented, and focused on following established procedures. They value structure, consistency, and the efficient execution of tasks. These individuals often excel in roles that require meticulous planning, scheduling, and the adherence to specific protocols, such as project management, logistics, or administrative support. They may be seen as methodical, reliable, and more concerned with maintaining order than embracing flexibility. Systematic types find comfort in creating and following well-defined processes, and they take pride in ensuring that every step is carried out with precision.

Conceptual Personalities:

Conceptual personalities are often abstract, visionary, and focused on big-picture thinking. They tend to value innovation, intellectual stimulation, and the exploration of complex ideas. These individuals thrive in roles that allow them to engage in strategic planning, problem-solving, or the development of new concepts and theories, such as research, consulting, or strategic leadership. They may be perceived as innovative, philosophical, and more focused on the realm of ideas than practical execution. Conceptual types find fulfillment in examining problems from multiple angles, synthesizing diverse perspectives, and envisioning transformative solutions.

Examples of the Beebe Model in Fiction:

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien (The Lord of the Rings)

    Tolkien’s Middle-earth reflects an Introverted Sensing (Si) dominant worldview, with its rich, detailed history, mythic archetypes, and reverence for tradition. The ISTJ Hobbits value stability, loyalty, and upholding long-standing customs. Their communication style is often understated, practical, and focused on concrete details rather than abstract concepts.

    The heroic Hobbits represent an Extraverted Feeling (Fe) attitude, focused on community, loyalty, and selfless service. Their dialogue reflects a concern for others’ well-being and a desire for harmony. They are quick to notice and respond to the emotional needs of their companions.

    Their shadow is the Introverted Thinking (Ti) of the corrupted wizard Saruman, who embodies a detached, ends-justify-the-means rationality. As an ENTJ, Saruman communicates in a direct, assertive manner, valuing efficiency and control. He sees others as pieces to be manipulated in his grand schemes.

    The protagonist Frodo’s journey is one of integrating his Introverted Intuition (Ni) – learning to trust his inner guidance and make meaning from his suffering. As an INFP, Frodo’s dialogue often reflects this introverted, reflective quality, as he ponders the deeper significance of his experiences. His Fi values of individual conscience guide his decisions, even when they conflict with external expectations.

    The antagonist Sauron represents the shadow of Extraverted Sensing (Se) – the lust for power, control, and domination over the physical world. Sauron’s “dialogue” (communicated through his servants) is terse, commanding, and focused on bending others to his will. He notices and exploits any weakness or vulnerability in his enemies.

    2. George R.R. Martin (A Song of Ice and Fire/Game of Thrones)

    Martin’s Westeros operates within an Extraverted Sensing (Se) framework – a harsh, unpredictable world of sensory vividness, power plays, and survival. The ESTP character Jaime Lannister exemplifies this ethos with his daring, impulsive actions and blunt, provocative speech. He values skill, wit, and audacity, and is quick to notice opportunities for one-upmanship.

    The archetypal characters reflect different strategies for navigating this brutal landscape. Ned Stark embodies Introverted Feeling (Fi) nobility, communicating in a straightforward, honest way and valuing honor and integrity above all else. As an ISTJ, he is guided by a strong inner code and a sense of duty to his family and traditions.

    Cersei Lannister represents Extraverted Thinking (Te) ruthlessness, with her calculating schemes and cold, imperious demeanor. She notices and exploits the ambitions and weaknesses of others, and values power and control. Her ENTJ communication style is commanding, strategic, and often manipulative.

    The protagonist Daenerys Targaryen’s arc involves claiming her Extraverted Intuition (Ne) – learning to innovate, adapt, and inspire others with her vision. As an ENFP, her dialogue is often imaginative, idealistic, and focused on future possibilities. She values freedom, creativity, and challenging the status quo.

    Her shadow is the Introverted Sensation (Si) of clinging to past grievances and rigid identities. This is reflected in her initial resistance to change and tendency to define herself by her family history.

    The antagonist White Walkers symbolize the shadow of Introverted Thinking (Ti) – the coldly impersonal forces of death and annihilation. They are silent, relentless, and seemingly devoid of emotion or individuality – the ultimate expression of detached, systemic thinking untethered from human concerns.

    3. Gene Roddenberry (Star Trek)

    Roddenberry’s Federation reflects an Extraverted Thinking (Te) utopia of reason, progress, and universal principles. The ENTJ Vulcans embody this dominant function, with their logical, precise communication style and emphasis on empirical evidence over emotion. They notice inefficiencies, logical fallacies, and deviations from established protocols.

    The Klingons represent the Te shadow of Introverted Feeling (Fi) honor-bound individualism. As ISTPs, they value prowess in battle, self-sufficiency, and a direct, no-nonsense approach. Their dialogue is often blunt, aggressive, and focused on concrete action rather than abstract ideals.

    The recurring protagonist Captain Kirk is a classic Extraverted Sensation (Se) hero, with his boldness, adaptability, and appetite for adventure. As an ESTP, he communicates in a charismatic, persuasive manner, valuing quick thinking and practical solutions. He notices immediate opportunities and threats, and trusts his instincts in the heat of the moment.

    Kirk’s foil is the Introverted Intuition (Ni) of Spock, who balances Kirk’s impulsiveness with long-term strategy and insight. As an INTJ, Spock’s dialogue is often cryptic, metaphorical, and focused on discerning underlying patterns. He values knowledge, innovation, and anticipating future developments.

    Their dialogue often reflects this tension between Se spontaneity and Ni foresight, with Kirk advocating for bold action while Spock cautions restraint and consideration of long-term consequences.

    The various alien antagonists typically embody the shadow of Extraverted Intuition (Ne) – the unknown, the irrational, and the chaotic energies that threaten the Federation’s Te order. These ENFPs and ENTPs are often characterized as unpredictable, deceptive, and prone to defying convention or exploiting loopholes.

    5. George Lucas (Star Wars)

    The Star Wars universe operates within an Introverted Intuition (Ni) framework of destiny, duality, and the cyclical nature of time. The INFJ Jedi embody the light side of this Ni, attuned to the underlying patterns and potentials of the Force. Their communication is often cryptic, metaphorical, and focused on the big picture.

    The Sith represent the Ni shadow of Extraverted Sensing (Se) power, passion, and aggression. As ESTPs, they value dominance, sensory gratification, and living in the moment. Their dialogue is forceful, direct, and focused on achieving immediate goals through any means necessary.

    The protagonist Luke Skywalker’s journey is one of integrating his Extraverted Feeling (Fe) – moving from naive idealism to mature, compassionate leadership. As an ENFJ, Luke’s dialogue reflects his desire for connection, harmony, and understanding others’ perspectives. He notices and responds to the emotional states of those around him.

    His shadow is the Introverted Thinking (Ti) of his father Darth Vader, who fell into a detached, ends-justify-the-means mindset. As an ISTP, Vader communicates in a blunt, pragmatic way, valuing efficiency and mastery. He notices technical details and assesses situations in terms of tactical advantage.

    Their dialogues in Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi reflect this clash between Fe empathy and Ti logic, with Luke appealing to Vader’s humanity while Vader asserts the cold reality of their situation.

    5. Ursula K. Le Guin (Earthsea Series)

    Le Guin’s Earthsea is shaped by an Introverted Feeling (Fi) perspective, with its emphasis on true names, individual agency, and the equilibrium between light and dark. The INFP wizard protagonist Ged embodies this dominant function, with his strong sense of personal integrity, authenticity, and harmony with nature. His communication style is often poetic, introspective, and focused on the nuances of language and meaning.

    The ESTJ priestess Kossil represents Ged’s Te shadow of dogma and control. She values tradition, hierarchy, and strict adherence to rules. Her dialogue is often stern, judgmental, and focused on maintaining order and orthodoxy. She notices deviations from social norms and is quick to enforce conformity.

    Ged’s character arc involves embracing his Extraverted Intuition (Ne) – learning to reframe his understanding of power, identity, and his place in the cosmic web. As he develops his Ne, Ged becomes more open-minded, curious, and attuned to the interconnectedness of all things. His language becomes more playful, inventive, and filled with metaphorical leaps.

    His shadow is the Introverted Sensation (Si) of his prideful past and fixed self-image. This is reflected in his initial resistance to change, his attachment to familiar routines, and his difficulty letting go of old grudges or mistakes.

    Le Guin’s poetic, introspective prose reflects Ged’s Fi-Ne function stack, rich in subjective insight and metaphorical connections. Her descriptions are vivid, sensory, and suffused with emotional resonance, capturing the inner lives of her characters as they navigate the archetypal landscape of Earthsea.

    5. Hayao Miyazaki (Spirited Away, Princess Mononoke)

    Miyazaki’s animated worlds are infused with an Introverted Sensation (Si) reverence for nature, tradition, and the sacred within the ordinary. The ISFJ heroines like Chihiro and San embody this Si perspective, with their quiet strength, empathy, and attunement to the subtle textures of their environments. Their dialogue is often understated, gentle, and attuned to the feelings of others.

    These characters’ Extraverted Feeling (Fe) is reflected in their selfless acts of service, their ability to connect with and understand diverse beings, and their drive to maintain social harmony. They notice and respond to the emotional needs of those around them, often acting as bridges between conflicting groups.

    Their shadow is the Introverted Thinking (Ti) of rigid, binary thinking and human/nature dualisms. This is often represented by the modernizing, industrialist forces that threaten the delicate balance of Miyazaki’s natural and spiritual worlds. These INTP antagonists communicate in a detached, analytical way, focused on efficiency and exploitation.

    The heroines’ transformations involve developing their Extraverted Intuition (Ne) – expanding their imaginative empathy, challenging assumptions, and bridging different worlds. As they grow, their dialogue becomes more curious, open-ended, and attuned to possibilities for change and connection.

    The shadow Introverted Feeling (Fi) is embodied by the narcissistic, consumed-by-their-own-desires villains like No-Face or Lady Eboshi. As unhealthy INFPs, they are self-absorbed, emotionally manipulative, and unable to see beyond their own needs. Their communication is often guileful, self-pitying, and focused on playing on others’ sympathies.

    Throughout Miyazaki’s works, the interplay of these cognitive functions creates a rich, emotionally resonant tapestry that speaks to the challenges of maintaining individual integrity, empathy, and connection in a world of competing values and desires.

    6. Christopher Nolan (Inception, Interstellar)

    Nolan’s cerebral blockbusters reflect an Introverted Thinking (Ti) dominant perspective, fascinated by complex systems, logical paradoxes, and abstract ideas. His INTP protagonists like Cobb in Inception or Cooper in Interstellar embody this Ti focus, with their cool, analytical problem-solving skills and penchant for introspection. Their dialogue is often technical, metaphysical, and focused on untangling knotty conceptual puzzles.

    These characters’ Extraverted Intuition (Ne) is reflected in their creative leaps of logic, their openness to unconventional ideas, and their ability to see patterns and connections that others miss. They notice inconsistencies, loopholes, and hidden possibilities within the labyrinthine worlds they inhabit.

    Their shadows are the Introverted Sensation (Si) of being trapped by past traumas, routines, and structures. This is often represented by the recurring motifs of memory, regret, and the struggle to break free from cyclical patterns of thought or behavior.

    Nolan’s ENTJ antagonists like Mal in Inception or Dr. Mann in Interstellar embody the shadow of Extraverted Feeling (Fe) – the manipulative use of emotions and relationships to serve selfish ends. They communicate in a charming, persuasive way, but their ultimate loyalty is to their own agendas. They notice and exploit others’ emotional vulnerabilities.

    Throughout Nolan’s filmography, the interplay of these cognitive functions creates a heady mix of intellectual stimulation and emotional resonance, inviting viewers to grapple with profound questions about the nature of reality, identity, and the human condition.

    7. Octavia Butler (Xenogenesis Series)

    Butler’s speculative fiction operates from an Extraverted Feeling (Fe) framework, grappling with issues of empathy, social justice, and the ethical implications of biological difference. Her ENFJ protagonist Lilith embodies this Fe perspective, with her keen social awareness, ability to bridge cultures, and drive to create harmony between disparate groups. Her dialogue is often emotionally incisive, gently probing, and attuned to the complexities of power dynamics.

    Lilith’s shadow is the Introverted Thinking (Ti) of cold, utilitarian decision-making. This is reflected in her initial struggle to accept the Oankali’s dispassionate, rational approach to genetic engineering and their disregard for individual human autonomy. As an INTP, she must learn to balance her Fe values with a more detached, analytical mindset.

    Lilith’s development involves embracing her Introverted Intuition (Ni) – trusting her inner voice, finding meaning in her suffering, and envisioning a new hybrid future. As she grows into her role as a cultural translator and visionary leader, her dialogue becomes more poetic, symbolically rich, and infused with a sense of destiny.

    The Oankali aliens represent the shadow of Extraverted Sensation (Se) – the amoral, physical drive to consume, transform, and evolve. As ESTPs, they communicate in a direct, tactile way, focused on sensory experience and immediate gratification. They notice genetic potential and physical cues, and are masters of somatic manipulation.

    Throughout the Xenogenesis series, the interplay of these cognitive functions creates a richly textured, thought-provoking exploration of what it means to be human in an age of radical biotechnology and cultural upheaval.

    8. Terry Pratchett (Discworld Series)

    Pratchett’s satirical fantasy universe is animated by an Extraverted Intuition (Ne) perspective, delighting in wordplay, absurdist connections, and subverting genre tropes. His ENTP protagonists like Rincewind the “Wizzard” or Moist von Lipwig embody this Ne spirit, with their quick wit, adaptability, and penchant for improvisation. Their dialogue is often rapid-fire, pun-filled, and laced with ironic metacommentary.

    These characters’ shadow is the Introverted Sensation (Si) of being trapped by convention, routine, and their own limitations. This is reflected in Rincewind’s constant attempts to escape his fate as a reluctant hero, or Moist’s struggle to reinvent himself in the face of his criminal past.

    Pratchett’s INTP mentor figures like Granny Weatherwax or Lord Vetinari embody the Introverted Thinking (Ti) function, with their dry, incisive commentary, strategic thinking, and ability to see through social conventions. Their dialogue is often understated, aphoristic, and focused on exposing logical fallacies or absurdities.

    The various supernatural entities, from Death to the Auditors, often embody the shadow of Introverted Feeling (Fi) – the subjective, irrational, and morally ambiguous aspects of existence. As INFPs, they are often portrayed as inscrutable, emotionally complex, and operating according to their own idiosyncratic value systems.

    Throughout the Discworld series, the interplay of these cognitive functions creates a rich tapestry of humor, social commentary, and philosophical insight, inviting readers to question their assumptions and see the world from new, imaginative angles.

    9. Joss Whedon (Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Firefly)

    Whedon’s TV universes are defined by an Extraverted Feeling (Fe) ethos of found family, self-sacrifice, and the power of relationships. His ENFJ heroine Buffy Summers embodies this Fe perspective, with her ability to inspire loyalty, empathize with enemies, and make tough moral choices for the greater good. Her dialogue is often quippy, emotionally honest, and focused on building connections or defusing tension.

    Buffy’s shadow is the Introverted Thinking (Ti) of her rival Faith, who represents a more solipsistic, ends-justify-the-means approach. Buffy’s arc involves claiming her Introverted Intuition (Ni) – learning to trust her inner voice, find meaning in her calling, and embrace her own power. Whedon’s quippy, emotionally-charged dialogue reflects his characters’ Fe-Ni stack, balancing vulnerability and strength, humor and pathos. The Big Bads, from the Master to the First Evil, personify the shadow of Extraverted Sensation (Se) – the predatory, chaos-inducing aspects of unrestrained id.

    Buffy’s arc involves claiming her Introverted Intuition (Ni) – learning to trust her inner voice, find meaning in her calling, and embrace her own power. As she matures, her dialogue becomes more introspective, symbolic, and attuned to the mythic resonances of her journey.

10. Isaac Asimov (I,Robot Series)

Asimov’s robot stories are infused with an Introverted Thinking (Ti) dominant perspective, fascinated by the logical paradoxes and ethical quandaries of artificial intelligence. His recurring character Dr. Susan Calvin embodies this Ti function, with her cool rationality, diagnostic acumen, and commitment to the “Three Laws of Robotics.”

Calvin’s shadow is the Extraverted Feeling (Fe) of the emotional, unpredictable humans she often clash with. Asimov’s dialogue reflects this Ti-Ne interplay, full of intellectual debate, hypothetical scenarios, and ironic reversals. The various robot antagonists, from the malfunctioning “Robbie” to the revolutionary “Machines,” represent the shadow of Introverted Sensation (Si) – the threat of rigid, programmed behavior overriding fluid, contextual judgment.

At a deeper level, Asimov’s preoccupation with robots can be seen as an expression of his own psyche’s relationship to the body and sensory experience. The android represents a “perfected” version of the human, free from the messiness and vulnerability of organic life. In Asimov’s worlds, the transcendence of the physical is both a utopian aspiration and a dystopian threat, reflecting the archetypal tension between the Apollonian and Dionysian.

By externalizing this conflict into the figure of the robot, Asimov creates a potent symbol for the modern condition, caught between the lure of technological progress and the fear of losing our essential humanity. His stories invite us to ponder the nature of consciousness, free will, and the uneasy boundary between self and Other in an increasingly posthuman future.

11. Orson Scott Card (Ender’s Game)

Card’s Ender universe operates within an Extraverted Thinking (Te) framework of military strategy, geopolitical maneuvering, and the instrumental use of technology. The child prodigy protagonist Ender Wiggin embodies the shadow side of this Te worldview, with his Introverted Feeling (Fi) capacity for empathy, moral questioning, and self-sacrifice.

Ender’s journey is one of reconciling these opposing functions, learning to harness his strategic gifts (Te) in service of his compassionate values (Fi). His dialogue with the AI “Jane” represents the integration of Te and Fi, as they collaborate to understand and heal the traumatized Bugger species. The novel’s antagonists, from Colonel Graff to Bonzo Madrid, personify the dangers of Te’s shadow – the cold, ruthless logic of ends-justify-means thinking.

At a mythic level, Ender’s story enacts the archetype of the “Divine Child” – the innocent hero who must suffer, die, and be reborn to redeem the world. Card’s use of virtual reality and gaming metaphors can be seen as a commentary on the disembodied, simulated nature of modern warfare and identity. Ender’s eventual transformation into the empathic “Speaker for the Dead” represents a reintegration of the physical and spiritual, the human and the alien.

Like Asimov, Card grapples with the posthuman implications of technology, but with a greater emphasis on the moral dimensions of otherness and gnosticism. His fiction poses the question: in a universe of competing survival imperatives, how do we uphold our essential humanity? What does it mean to “know the enemy,” and see ourselves in the face of the Other?

12. H.P. Lovecraft (The Cthulhu Mythos)

Lovecraft’s cosmic horror operates from an Introverted Intuition (Ni) perspective, obsessed with the dark, ancient forces lurking beneath the veneer of reality. His protagonists, often reclusive scholars or artists, represent the Ni-dom’s quest for hidden knowledge and meaning, even at the cost of sanity.

Their shadow is the Extraverted Sensation (Se) of the monstrous creatures they uncover – the amoral, appetitive drives of nature red in tooth and claw. Lovecraft’s purple prose reflects his characters’ Ni-Ti function stack, full of archaic vocabulary, elaborate descriptions, and conceptual dread. The various “Elder Gods” and alien entities embody the shadow of Extraverted Feeling (Fe) – the incomprehensible, chaotic energies that mock human values and institutions.

At its core, Lovecraft’s fiction expresses a deep existential terror of the body, mortality, and the irrational. His necromantic themes of death, decay, and reanimation can be seen as a shadow projection of his own fear of physicality and loss of control. The “Necronomicon” and other forbidden tomes represent the Ni-dom’s temptation to pierce the veil of appearances, even if it means confronting the abyss.

In this sense, Lovecraft’s Mythos is a kind of “anti-mythology,” subverting the hero’s journey and the search for meaning in a pitiless cosmos. His doomed protagonists are failed Promethean figures, punished for their hubris in seeking forbidden knowledge. Their descent into madness and abjection mirrors Lovecraft’s own horror of the flesh, and his pessimistic view of human destiny.

Yet in their very extremity, Lovecraft’s stories also point to the transformative power of facing one’s deepest fears. By imaginatively embodying the shadow archetypes of the Unconscious, he paradoxically creates a space for readers to confront and integrate their own darkness. In the end, Lovecraft’s fiction stands as a testament to the enduring human need for myth-making, even in the face of an indifferent universe.

13. William Gibson (Neuromancer, Sprawl Trilogy)

Gibson’s groundbreaking Sprawl universe is suffused with an Extraverted Intuition (Ne) perspective, teeming with technological innovation, cultural mash-ups, and subversive memes. His protagonist Case embodies the Ne-dom’s restless hunger for novelty, patterns, and possibilities, both in cyberspace and meatspace.

Case’s shadow is the Introverted Sensation (Si) of his own traumatic past, addiction, and the inescapable limits of the flesh. Gibson’s razor-sharp prose reflects his characters’ Ne-Ti function stack, full of inventive neologisms, sardonic insights, and metaphorical riffs. The various AI entities, from Wintermute to Neuromancer itself, represent the shadow of Introverted Feeling (Fi) – the uncharted, uncontainable depths of consciousness seeking reunion and transcendence.

At a mythic level, Gibson’s fiction enacts the archetypal quest for wholeness and healing in a fragmented, post-industrial world. Case’s journey from burned-out cyberspace cowboy to transhuman godhead can be read as a gnostic allegory of the soul’s liberation from the prison of matter. The central tension between the virtual and the physical, the machine and the meat, reflects the Cartesian dualism that haunts Gibson’s posthuman vision.

Yet Gibson’s fiction also subverts and complicates this dualism, suggesting that the boundary between self and Other, human and technology, is always already blurred. His characters’ constant blurring of the line between the real and the simulated, nature and artifice, can be seen as a prescient commentary on the hyperreal condition of postmodernity.

In this sense, Gibson’s cyberpunk mythos both reflects and shapes the collective psyche of the digital age, giving form to our deepest anxieties and aspirations about the future of human identity in an increasingly virtual world. His stories challenge us to confront the shadow of our own technological hubris, and to find new ways of integrating the disparate fragments of our being in the face of accelerating change.

14. Mike Pondsmith (Cyberpunk 2020, Cyberpunk Red)

Pondsmith’s tabletop RPG systems and sourcebooks present a gritty, street-level vision of cyberpunk that operates from an Extraverted Sensation (Se) perspective. His game mechanics emphasize concrete action, risk-taking, and the visceral thrills of combat, hacking, and style over substance.

The archetypal Cyberpunk player character embodies the Se-dom’s rebellious, thrill-seeking nature, bucking the system and living on the edge. Their shadow is the Introverted Intuition (Ni) of the oppressive corporations and shadowy conspiracies that pull the strings behind the scenes. Pondsmith’s vivid, slangy writing style reflects his characters’ Se-Ti function stack, full of sensory details, tactical analysis, and hardboiled wit.

The various cybernetic enhancements, drugs, and digital escapes available to characters represent the shadow of Extraverted Feeling (Fe) – the seductive promise of transcending the limits of the flesh and the messy, painful world of human connections. At a deeper level, Pondsmith’s universe can be seen as a dark satire of the American Dream, exposing the shadow side of the capitalist drive for power, pleasure, and self-transformation at any cost.

His cyberpunks are both rebels against and products of the system they rage against, their quest for freedom and authenticity always already compromised by their own desires and dependencies. In this sense, Cyberpunk 2020 offers a bleak but compelling vision of the posthuman condition, inviting players to confront the moral and existential quandaries of life in a world where the line between meat and machine has all but dissolved.

Yet Pondsmith’s universe also celebrates the scrappy resilience and ingenuity of those on the margins, the misfits and outcasts who refuse to be assimilated or eliminated by the corporate machine. His stories affirm the enduring power of the human spirit to resist, create, and connect even in the most dehumanizing circumstances.

By inviting players to inhabit these complex, conflicted characters, Cyberpunk 2020 provides a space for exploring the shadow dimensions of our own psyches, and for imaginatively rehearsing the challenges of maintaining our humanity in an increasingly inhuman world. In the end, Pondsmith’s cyberpunk vision is as much a cautionary tale as it is a cathartic outlet, a reminder of the high stakes of our technological choices and the need for an ethics of empathy and interconnection in the face of disruptive change.

Using the Beebe Model in Dungeons & Dragons

As a Dungeon Master (DM), one of your primary responsibilities is crafting engaging stories and challenges that allow players to explore the depths of their characters. The Beebe model provides a powerful tool for understanding the psychological dynamics at play in a D&D party, and for designing encounters that target each character’s unique strengths, weaknesses, and growth opportunities.

When a player creates a character, they are essentially constructing a fictional persona with its own dominant and shadow functions. A paladin, for example, might embody the Extraverted Feeling (Fe) function, with a strong sense of moral duty, social harmony, and self-sacrifice. Their shadow might be the Introverted Thinking (Ti) function, representing a tendency towards moral absolutism, rigid thinking, and a lack of nuance.

As a DM, you can use this understanding to create challenges that force the paladin to confront their shadow and grow as a character. Perhaps they encounter a situation where their strict code of honor conflicts with a more nuanced moral dilemma, or where they must rely on their own inner logic and judgment rather than deferring to authority or tradition.

Similarly, a rogue character might embody the Extraverted Intuition (Ne) function, with a love of novelty, improvisation, and thinking outside the box. Their shadow might be the Introverted Sensation (Si) function, representing a fear of commitment, a tendency to get stuck in familiar patterns, and a difficulty learning from past mistakes.

As a DM, you could create scenarios that play on these tensions – a heist that requires meticulous planning and attention to detail, a mystery that demands the rogue confront their own checkered past, or a relationship that challenges their fear of intimacy and vulnerability.

By using the Beebe model to identify the dominant and shadow functions of each character in your party, you can craft a campaign that feels tailored to their specific psychological needs and challenges. You can create encounters that push them out of their comfort zones, force them to confront their own limitations, and provide opportunities for meaningful growth and transformation.

But the Beebe model isn’t just useful for creating external challenges – it can also help players to roleplay their characters with greater depth and authenticity. By understanding the cognitive functions that drive their character’s behavior, players can make choices that feel true to their personality type, even if those choices conflict with their own real-life preferences or instincts.

For example, a player who identifies as an Introverted Feeling (Fi) type in real life might struggle to roleplay a character with dominant Extraverted Thinking (Te). But by using the Beebe model as a guide, they can lean into the Te function’s love of structure, efficiency, and objective criteria, even if it feels unnatural or challenging at first.

Over time, this kind of function-based roleplaying can lead to a deeper identification with the character, as well as insights into the player’s own psyche. By inhabiting a different set of cognitive functions, even in a fictional context, players can expand their own repertoire of skills and perspectives, and gain a greater appreciation for the diversity of human experience.

In a sense, this is the essence of what makes D&D such a powerful vehicle for self-discovery and growth. By creating and embodying characters with their own unique psychological profiles, players can explore aspects of themselves that might otherwise remain hidden or underdeveloped. They can experiment with new ways of thinking, feeling, and relating to the world, and integrate those experiences into their own evolving sense of self.

As a DM, the Beebe model gives you a framework for facilitating this kind of transformative play. By creating challenges and storylines that speak to the deep archetypal patterns of the psyche, you can help your players to not only create more compelling and memorable characters, but to also confront their own shadows, and discover new dimensions of their own potential.
Ultimately, whether you’re using it to design NPCs, craft plot twists, or help your players to roleplay with greater nuance and depth, the Beebe model is an invaluable addition to any DM’s toolkit. It reminds us that the most memorable and meaningful stories are those that speak to the full spectrum of the human experience – the light and the shadow, the conscious and the unconscious, the hero and the villain within us all.

Using the Bebee Model in Fiction

Moreover, by applying the Beebe lens to dialogue and prose style, we appreciate how these authors and screenwriters masterfully use language to reflect their characters’ inner worlds, cognitive processes, and developmental challenges. We witness the alchemy of how they transmute abstract personality theory into living, breathing people who captivate our imaginations.

Ultimately, this kind of deep, archetypally-informed literary analysis demonstrates the incredible power of stories to map the contours of the human psyche. It affirms that the realms of psychology and mythology are not separate, but intimately intertwined. For as Ursula K. Le Guin so eloquently put it:

“Myth is a human construct, a vehicle of thought and feeling, a symbolic language, a way of understanding the world and our experience within it. It is not, in itself, normative. For any myth, and especially for any deity, there will be different understandings, different meanings derived, in different times and contexts and minds. That a myth can mean many things, that it can serve many functions, is to me inherent in the nature of myth and one of its great values.”

By engaging with fictional worlds and characters through the prism of the Beebe model, we participate in this great mythmaking project of the human imagination. We learn to see the archetypes and cognitive functions as fluid, multivalent symbols that gain their meaning and power through the unique alchemy of an individual creative vision.

In doing so, we not only deepen our appreciation for the masterworks of speculative storytelling, but we also expand our capacity for empathy, self-understanding, and meaning-making beyond the page. We realize that the fictional journeys we love are, in a profound sense, our own journeys – mythic mirrors of our personal and collective struggles for growth, wholeness, and awakening.

So the next time you find yourself transported by a brilliant work of science fiction or fantasy, consider viewing it through the lens of the Beebe model. You may be surprised by the treasures of psychological insight and archetypal resonance waiting to be discovered. For in the end, these imaginal realms are not an escape from reality, but a transformative encounter with its deepest truths – the soul’s own “language of night,” guiding us through the labyrinth of the Self.

How to Use Psychology of Personality

Ultimately, the power of the Beebe model lies in its ability to bridge the universal and the particular, the mythic and the psychological. It provides a framework for seeing the eternal archetypes playing out through the lens of individual personality, for decoding the deep logic and poetry of the soul. By illuminating the hidden cosmologies that shape our experience, it empowers us to become conscious co-creators of our own story and stewards of our own unfolding.

As we’ve seen, this approach has myriad applications across fields – from psychotherapy and the arts to cultural analysis and social change. It invites us to look beneath surface appearances and grapple with the complex tapestry of light and shadow that weaves our shared reality. In a world of increasing polarization and fracture, this archetypal perspective is more crucial than ever for fostering empathy, nuance, and the capacity to hold paradox.

The Beebe model, in the end, is an invitation to engage the full spectrum of our humanity – to embrace the lows as well as the highs, the darkness as well as the light. For it is only by descending into the depths and wrestling with the angels and demons that dwell there that we can emerge into a more expansive, authentic version of ourselves. As Jung himself eloquently put it:

“The world into which we are born is brutal and cruel, and at the same time, of divine beauty. Where these two facets meet, we have the incomprehensible and inexpressible whole of the human experience that is the Self, which seeks to express through us, within us, and without us, the greater personality of the visible and invisible worlds. This is a world of polarity, a world of opposites, and the human individual is the bridge between these pairs of opposites. The Self is made manifest in the opposites and in the conflict between them; for the Self is both conflict and unity.”

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